William Morris – A Selected Chronology

William Morris born, 24th March, at Elm House, Walthamstow.

Educated at Marlborough College, Wiltshire.

At Exeter College, Oxford, to study for Holy Orders.
Meets Edward Burne-Jones and C.J. Faulkner, later to be members of the firm.

Articled to G.E. Street, Gothic Revival Architect, at Oxford. Philip Webb fellow pupil.
Later in same year, mover to London to study painting under D.G. Rossetti.

First volume of poems, ‘The Defence of Guinevere’, published.

Marries Jane Burdon.

Lives at Red House, Bexley heath, Kent, specially designed for him by Philip Webb and decorated by Morris, Burne-Jones, Rossetti etc.

Firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co founded, with premises at 8 Red Lion Square, Bloomsbury.
Daughter Jenny born.

May Morris born. Firm shows work at the International Exhibition at South Kensington.

Firm’s premises move to 26 Queen Square, Bloomsbury with Morris and family ‘living above his shop’.
Warrington Taylor appointed business manager.

Firm commissioned to decorate Armoury and Tapestry Rooms at St. James Palace and Green Dining Room at South Kensington Museum.

‘Earthly Paradise’ published

Rents Kelmscott Manor, Lechlade, Gloucestershire. First visits Iceland.

Morris Family goes to live at Horrington House, Turnham Green, to make room for expansion of workshops at Queen Square.

Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co dissolved and begun again as Morris & Co, with Morris as sole manager. First visit to Thomas Wardle at Leek.

Morris appointed examiner (of drawings sent for exhibition) at South Kensington Museum

Gives first lecture ‘The Decorative Arts’. New sales and showrooms opened at 449 Oxford Street. Founds Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. First woven silks produced at Queen Square.

Kelmscott House, Hammersmith taken. First ‘Hammersmith’ hand tufted carpets made there.

Morris & Co moves to Merton Abbey, Surrey.

High warp tapestry weaving started at Merton. Morris’ first involvement with socialism – joins the Social Democratic Federation.

Begins lecturing in London and throughout the country on Socialism.

Leaves Social Democratic Federation and founds the Socialist League.

Leaves Socialist League and founds Hammersmith Socialist Society.

Kelmscott press started. ‘News from Nowhere’ published.

Kelmscott ‘Chaucer’ published. Morris dies 3rd October, at Kelmscott House, Hammersmith.

Charles Rennie Mackintosh – A Selected Chronology

Margaret Macdonald born (died 1933)

Charles Rennie Mackintosh born (died 1928)
James Herbert MacNair born (died 1955)

Frances Macdonald born (died 1921)

Mackintosh attends Reid’s Public School, Glasgow

Apprenticed to John Hutchison, architect
Commenced evening classes at Glasgow School of Art

Awarded a school prize: work generally highly commended
Sketched Glasgow Cathedral

Awarded two prizes by the Glasgow Institute of Architects

Awarded Bronze Medal at South Kensington and two of the Glasgow Institute of Architects’ prizes

Joined John Honeyman & Keppie
Awarded one of the Queen’s prizes at South Kensington, also several School prizes, a free studentship and the Glasgow Institute of Architects’ Design Prize
Sketched at Elgin

‘A Public Hall’; awarded Alexander Thomson Scholarship
‘Redclyffe’; Mackintosh’s first commission
‘A Science and Art Museum’
Awarded National Silver Medal, South Kensington
Glasgow Art Galleries Competition
Sketched at Largs, Ayrshire

Scholarship tour of Italy
‘Scottish Baronial Architecture’; a paper read to the Glasgow Architectural Association
The Macdonald sisters first mentioned in the School of Art records

Soane Medallion Competition ‘A Chapter House’
Awarded National Gold Medal, South Kensington
‘Italy’; a paper read to the Glasgow Architectural Association

Project for ‘A Railway Terminus’
‘Architecture’; a paper read to the Glasgow Architectural Association
‘Glasgow Herald’ Tower designed
‘Girl in the East Wind’; Mackintosh
Canal Boatman’s Institute, Port Dundas, designed at the office
Sketched at Lamlash, Arran

‘Conversazione’ Programme
‘Spring’ & ‘Autumn’ in the scrap books
‘November 5th’; Margaret Macdonald
‘Pond’; Frances Macdonald
Drawing ‘The Tree of Influence’
Queen Margaret’s Medical College
Project for Royal Insurance Building, prepared in the office
Sketched at Stirling, Wareham and Chipping
Campden; flower studies at Langside

Martyrs’ Public School
Interior Details at ‘Gladsmuir’, Kilmacolm, for the Davidsons
Posters and Craftwork
Sketched at Christchurch, Hampshire and Oxford
J. Herbert MacNair in practice alone

Glasgow School of Art competition
Decoration for Buchanan Street Tearooms
Posters, furniture and paintings exhibited in London
Sketched at Worsted
Margaret & Frances Macdonald at 128 Hope Street, Glasgow, illustrated William Morris’ ‘Guinevere’ and ‘The Christmas Story’

Glasgow School of Art, building commenced (1897-90
Queen’s Cross Church designed
Important articles on the Glasgow Designers published in ‘The Studio’
Sketched in East Anglia
‘Spring’ & ‘Summer’, watercolours in beaten metal frames by Margaret and Frances Macdonald (in the Glasgow Art Galleries collection) ‘Autumn’ & ‘Winter’ 1898
Mackintosh’s salary £12 per month

Project for the Glasgow Exhibition in 1901
Furniture designed for the Argyll Street Tearooms
First illustration for furniture in ‘Dekorative Kunst’
Runcill Street Church Halls, Glasgow
Several cabinets for Alexander Seggie, Edinburgh
Gravestone, Kilmacolm
Interiors for Westdel, Queen’s Place, Glasgow
J. Herbert MacNair appointed Instructor of Design at Liverpool University

Glasgow School of Art; east wing completed
‘Windyhill’ designed for William Davidson, Jnr.
Dining-room cabinets illustrated in ‘Dekorative Kunst’
Queen’s Cross Church completed
The Macdonalds move to Dunglass Castle – Mackintosh interior
Frances Macdonald and J. Herbert MacNair married
Mackintosh’s salary £16 per month

Margaret Macdonald and Charles Rennie Mackintosh married
Decoration and furnishing of 120 Mains Street, Glasgow
Ingram Street Tea rooms decorated
Exhibition at the Secession House, Vienna
Fritz Warndorfer visits the Mackintoshes in Glasgow
Decorations for St. Serf’s Church, Dysart, Fife

‘Windyhill’ completed
Ingram Street Tea rooms decorated
Interiors for Kingsborough Gardens, Glasgow
Project for ‘A Town House for an Artist’ and ‘A Country Cottage for an Artist’
Gate Lodge, Auchenbothie, Kilmacolm built
Menus designed for Annual Dinner of the R.I.B.A.
Stands at International Exhibition, Glasgow, illustrated in ‘The Studio’
Daily Record Office, Glasgow
Project for ‘Haus Eines Kunstfreundes’
Illustrated articles in ‘Die Kunst’ furniture exhibited in Berlin and Dresden
Sketched, and Flower studies, Holy Island, Northumberland
John Honeyman retired; Mackintosh becomes a partner in the firm
Mackintosh’s salary £20 per month

Exhibition in Turin
Warndorfer Music Salon, Vienna
Liverpool Cathedral project in preparation
‘Haus Eines Kunstfreundes’ design published
‘Hill House’ Helensburgh designed for W.W. Blackie
A paper entitled ‘Seemliness’
Drawings for house at Kilmacolm (unknown) – in the Glasgow University collection
Illustrated articles in ‘Decorative Kunst’ and ‘Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration’

Liverpool Cathedral project published
‘Hous’hill’ alterations and furnishing commenced
The Willow Tea rooms designed
Furniture for exhibition, Moscow

Furniture, Holy Trinity Church, Bridge of Allan
Scotland Street Tea rooms opened
The Willow Tea rooms opened
Sketched, and flower studies at St. Mary’s, Scilly Isles

Illustrated articles on ‘Hill House’ and the Willow Tea rooms in ‘Deutsche Kunst und Dekoration’ and ‘Dekorative Kunst’
Fireplace for Miss Rowat, Paisley; Hall furniture (chairs) for Windyhill
‘Faded Rose’, a flower study – Glasgow Corporation Collection
Eulogy on the Mackintoshes by Kalas in ‘De la Tamise a la Spree’
Gravestone, East Wemyss, Fife
Sketched at Stopham and Saxligham, Sussex

Elected Fellow of the R.I.B.A.
Mackintoshes move to 78 Southpark Avenue
Glasgow School of Art; west wing redesigned
‘Moss-side’, Kilmacolm, for H.B. Collins
‘Auchinibert’, Killearn, for F.J. Shand
‘The Dutch Kitchen’, Argyll Street Tea rooms
‘The Oak Room’, Ingram Street Tea rooms
Organ case and pulpit for Abbey Close Church, Paisley
Sketches on Holy Island, Northumberland

Glasgow School of Art; west wing building commenced
‘Hill House’ illustrated in ‘The Studio Year Book of Decorative Art’

Elected Fellow of Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland
Doorway to the Lady Artist’s Club, Blythswood Square Glasgow
Sketched at Cintra, Portugal

Glasgow School of Art; west wing completed
Exhibits at Kunstchau, Vienna
‘The Four Queens’. gesso panels by Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh for ‘Hous’hill’
Flower studies at Withyham, Kent

Sketched gravestones, Penhurst, Kent
Flower studies at Chiddingstone, Kent

‘The Cloister Room’ and ‘The Chinese Room’ Ingram Street Tea rooms
‘The White Cockade’ Restaurant for Miss Cranston at Glasgow Exhibition
Lettering for Talwyn Morris’ Memorial stone

Flower studies at Bowling, Dunbartonshire

Exhibits furniture in Moscow
‘Moss-side’, Kilmacolm, further alterations
Mackintosh leaves Honeyman and Keppie

Mackintosh moves to Walberswick, Suffolk and takes seriously to painting

Mackintoshes settle in Chelsea

78 Derngate for W.J. Bassett-Lowke
‘The Dugout’ Willow Tea rooms
Fabric designs for Messrs Foxton and Messrs Sefton, London
Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, ‘Voices in the Wood’, with Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh

Clocks for W.J. Bassett-Lowke
Decorations and furniture for F. Jones, Northhampton
Adhesive labels for W.J. Bassett-Lowke Ltd.

Cottage at East Grinstead for E.O. Hoppe
(William Davidson buys 78 Southpark Avenue)

Proposed studios in Chelsea
Proposed studio flats for the Arts League of Service
Proposed theatre for Margaret Morris

Bookcovers designed for W.H. Blackie & Sons

Mackintoshes settle in South of France
Mackintosh devotes himself entirely to painting

Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh executes designs for the Queen’s Dolls’ House

Paintings exhibited at 5th International Exhibition, Chicago

At Port Vendres

Mackintoshes return to London

Charles Rennie Mackintosh dies

Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh returns to Chelsea

Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh dies
Memorial Exhibition to the Mackintoshes held in Glasgow

Christopher Dresser – A Selected Chronology

Born Glasgow, the third child of Christopher and Mary (nee Nettleton), both from Yorkshire families.

Christopher Dresser (1807-1869) an excise officer, served in Yorkshire, Glasgow, Sussex, County Tipperary, County Cork and Hereford; he rose to the rank of collector.

Entered the Government School of design at Somerset House (later to be transferred to Marlborough House)

Awarded scholarship of £15.00

Winner of 3 medals and 3 prizes.

Re-appointed to scholarship.

Re-appointed to scholarship. Prize for design of ‘garment fabrics’.
Married Thirza Perry of Maidley, Shropshire (her father, William,
was a lay missionary with the City of London Mission).

Botanical illustrations and diagrams (for the Department of Science
and Art) and now in the print room of the V & A appear to date from this year.

Patented a method of ‘nature printing’

Responsible for Plate XCVIII in Owen Jones’ ‘Grammar of Ornament’, the plate illustrated ‘the geometrical arrangement of flowers’ – the accompanying note stated: ‘….the basis of all form is geometry, the impulse which forms the surface, starting at the centre with equal force, necessarily stops at equal distances; the result is symmetry and regularity’.

Began a series of articles for the Art Journal on ‘Botany as Adapted to the Arts and Art Manufactures’ which continued through 1858.

Delivered a paper ‘On the Relation of Science to Ornamental Art’ at the Royal Institution where ideas concerning the application of natural laws to design were developed; these were to be expanded in the ‘Art of Decorative Design (1862).

Paper ‘Contributions to Organgraphic Botany’ before the Linnean Society.

‘The Rudiments of Botany’…and ‘Unity in Variety’…published.
Paper – ‘On the Morphological Import of Certain Vegetable Organs’ before the Edinburgh Botanical Society.

Had the degree of Doctor of Philosophy conferred by the University of Jena ‘in consideration of services he has rendered to botanical science’. (The Chair of Botany at Jena was held by M.J. Schleiden, 1804-1881, co-founder with Theodore Schwann of the theory of the cell.

‘Popular Manual of Botany’ published.

Elected Fellow of the Edinburgh Botanical Society.

Candidate for the Chair of Botany at University College, London. (The chair was obtained by Daniel Oliver, 1830-1916).

Elected Fellow of the Linnean Society.

First book on design published – ‘The Art of Decorative Design’.
‘Development of Ornamental Art in the International Exhibition’ published (a critical guide).

Supplied a number of designs for this exhibition.
Although he probably knew something of Japanese design, from the small collection acquired by Henry Cole for the Museum at Marlborough House, it was due to the showing of Sir Rutherford Alcock’s collection at the International Exhibition that Dresser had the opportunity of seeing a comprehensive selection of Japanese work; he made drawings and purchases for Sir Rutherford’s collection.

A sketchbook dating from around this year suggests an interest in the design of silver and plate and a decorative vocabulary that was already mature.

Began a series of articles in the ‘Chromolithograph’ (a short lived publication in which had been incorporated ‘Nature and Art’) on selected examples of his work exhibited in the Paris Exhibition of this year.

George Augustus Sala wrote of Dresser as the designer of ‘beautiful and luxurious carpets’ for Messrs Brinton & Lewis: he also observed ‘…for some years past the skill and taste of Dr. Dresser had been put into requisition by some of the leading art manufacturers both of England and the Continent…both as a designer of models and patterns and as a general art adviser…’

Last lectured in botany at South Kensington.

Moved to Tower Cressy, a large house on Camden Hill.

Began ‘The Principles of Decorative Design’, a series of articles in Cassell’s ‘Technical Educator’ (published in book form in 1873).

Paper ‘Ornamentation considered as high art’ before the Royal Society of Arts which set out views similar to those expressed in ‘The Art of Decorative Design’ (1862); Dresser stated: ‘…that true ornamentation is of purely mental origin, and consists of symbolized imagination or emotion only. I therefore argue that ornamentation is not only fine art, but that it is high art…even a higher art than that practiced by the pictorial artist, as it is wholly of mental origin…’

Designed a cast iron ornamental table and hat stand for the Coalbrookdale Company shown at the International Exhibition, South Kensington.

Designed a number of brocades for J.W.& C. Ward, illustrated in the ‘Art Journal’ which noted that Dresser’s designs ‘…have been of great practical value to many classes….of British manufacturers…’

Visited the Vienna International Exhibition.

Lectured on Owen Jones at Jones’ Memorial Exhibition. Dresser spoke of Jones as first having taught him to think ‘…and what was ornament unless it embodied mind?’ Also referred to 5 lectures delivered by Jones I 1849 and their formative influence. Jones was ‘the greatest ornamentist of modern times’.

The issue, in 20 parts, of ‘Studies in Design’ begun, Dresser wrote that he had ‘…prepared this work with the hope of assisting to bring about A better style of decoration for our houses’.

Began designing for Elkington & Company, makers of silver and plate.

Left England to visit Japan (in a semi-official capacity) calling at the Philadelphia Centenary Exhibition en route.

Spent about 4 months in Japan and presented the Emperor with a collection of examples of the work of some of the leading British manufacturers, intended to form part of the collection of the newly founded National Museum. Dresser told the Emperor: ‘…For years past I have been an admirer of Japanese objects…’

Travelled in all about 1700 miles in Japan visiting temples, shrines and centres of traditional manufacture.

Also collected, o behalf of Tiffany & Company of New York, examples of Japanese goods including ‘many objects for ordinary domestic use’ which were auctioned in June 1877.

Served as Juror (class 22, paper hangings) at the International Exhibition in Paris.

Earliest designs for Hukin and Heath (manufacturers of silver and plate) appear to date from this year.

Entered into partnership with Charles Holme of Bradford; trading under the name of Dresser and Holme, the company was to import Japanese and other Oriental wares.

Sir Rutherford and Lady Alcock and members of the Japanese legation were among the distinguished guests that attending the opening of the showrooms in Farringdon Road.

Began designing for the Linthorpe Art Pottery and acted as ‘Art Superintendent’.

Appointed editor of the ‘Furniture Gazette’ a position which Dresser held for a year. The first issue under Dresser’s editorship contains Owen Jones’ propositions from his Grammar of Ornament (1856) which began ‘the decorative arts arise from, and should be properly attendant upon architecture’.

Appointed ‘Art Manager’ of Art Furnishers Alliance, established to ‘carry on the business of manufacturing, buying and selling high class goods of artistic design’. (Dresser had only a nominal financial involvement in the Alliance). Among the manufacturers and traders who had substantial holdings were George Hayter Chubb (who was appointed chairman), Edward Cope, James Dixon & Sons and A. Lasenby Liberty; Sir Edward Lee, who had organised the Dublin Exhibition of Arts, Industries and Manufacturers of 1872 was appointed Company Secretary. Despite support by influential manufacturers the Art

Furnishers Alliance went into liquidation in May, 1883.
Decorated the interior and designed much of the furniture of Bushloe House, Wigton Magna, near Leicester, the house of Hiram B. Owston, his solicitor.

‘Japan, its Architecture, Art and Art Manufactures’, a lengthy account of the visit to Japan, was published; in the preface Dresser wrote of ‘a long and painful illness’ from which he had suffered during the preparation of the book.

Moved to Wellesly Lodge, Brunswick Road, Sutton (probably an indication of declining fortunes).

‘Modern Ornamentation’ is published (which included work by assistants and pupils), the book represented ‘but one phase…of our office work…there are no examples of architectural work, of designs for furniture, earthenware, metalwork or the numerous things that emanate from this office’.

Moved to Elm Bank, near Barnes Railway bridge (probably an indication of improving fortunes).

Apart from designing textiles and patterns Dresser was probably designing for William Ault’s pottery, for Benham and Froud, metalworkers and William Couper of Glasgow, glass makers.

An anonymous article in ‘The Studio’ spoke of Dresser as ‘not the least, but perhaps the greatest of commercial designers, imposing his fantasy and invention upon the output of British industry’.

Died on 24th November, in his sleep, at the Hotel Central, Mulhouse (Alsace), whilst on a business trip. Dresser was accompanied by his son Louis.

The net value of Dresser’s personal estate was £2.157.3.

‘The Builder’ spoke of Dresser’s last years: ‘…he spent most of his time preparing designs for Manufacturers and in the enjoyment of his garden and flowers’.

‘He was a most genial companion and interesting talker, and never tired of discussion on Art and the habits of the nations of the East, trying to trace their histories by their ornamental forms as a philologist does by their language…’

1. Chronology

Birth of John Ruskin.

Birth of William Morris.

‘Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood’ formed and first Pre-Raphaelite works exhibited.

Paris: 11th Trade Exhibition. Visited by Henry Cole, and Matthew Digby Wyatt, who had been asked to prepare a report on the Exhibition for the Society of Arts. It was this exhibition which was the inspiration for the Great Exhibition organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert.

London: the ‘Great Exhibition’ (the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations), held under the direction of the Prince Consort and Sir Henry Cole. Allegedly visited by Morris, then aged 17, who was nauseated by the tasteless and materialistic display.

Great Industrial Exhibition, Dublin.
World’s Fair of the works of Industry of all Nations, New York.

Working Men’s college started in London by F.D. Maurice

Paris: L’Exposition Universelles des Produits de l’Industrie de toutes les Nations, included the works of the Pre-Raphaelites which had a considerable influence on the French Realist School.

Owen Jones’ ‘The Grammar of Ornament’ published, the first book to have full colour plates coloured by chromolithography.

American Institute of Architects founded in New York.
October: An exhibition of British painting opened in New York, going on to Washington, Philadelphia and Boston, including Pre-Raphaelite works assembled by Ernest Gambart. The show was not a success due to the current decline in the U.S. economy.
Rossetti undertook the decoration of the Oxford Union Library with the assistance of William Morris and other members of the pre-Raphaelite circle.

Planning and building of Morris’ Red House by Philip Webb at Upton in Kent.
Furniture designed, especially made and decorated for the house by Morris, Web, Rossetti and Burne-Jones. The interior was decorated with fresco painting.

Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. founded to provide the type of furniture so conspicuously lacking in the mid nineteenth century – solidly constructed and without superfluous ornament. Madox Brown, Rossetti and Burne-Jones all worked for the firm, as did Arthur Hughes, another Pre-Raphaelite, albeit briefly. The foreman glass worker was George Campfield, a recruit from the Working Men’s College.

London: International Exhibition. Included a stand furnished by Morris & Co. which was praised for archaeological exactness of their imitation of the style of the Middle Ages, and the first Japanese art and crafts works to be widely seen, which had an immediate and widespread effect on the design of the period.

Morris & Co. undertook two important commissions; the decoration of the Green Dining Room at the South Kensington Museum and of the Armoury and Tapestry Room at St. James’s Palace.

Paris: L’Exposition Universelle

1st South Kensington Exhibition.
Ruskin’s ‘Fors Clavigera’ began to appear in instalments and was eagerly read by A.H. Mackmurdo, amongst others.

2nd South Kensington Exhibition.
William De Morgan, who had been working since the early days of the firm for Morris & Co., set up his own pottery in Chelsea.

‘Martin Brothers’ pottery established by the brothers Robert, Wallace, Edwin and Charles Martin in Fulham.
Vienna: Universal Exhibition.
3rd South Kensington Exhibition.

Morris began his experiments with fabric design.
4th South Kensington Exhibition.

Formation of ‘Liberty & Co.’, a shop specializing in Oriental art and artifacts. Patrons of the new shop included E.W. Godwin, D.G. Rossetti, Burne-Jones and Whistler. Christopher Dresser, after his visit to Japan, also attempted to open a business selling Oriental goods (Dresser and Holme set up in 1878 in Farringdon Road) and in 1880 was appointed Art Manager of the Art Furnishers’ Alliance. Both businesses failed. Dresser’s son Louis, however, later worked for Liberty & Co.
Jonathan T. Carr began the building of Bedford Park, Chiswick, employing E.W. Godwin and Norman Shaw as architects. Completed in 1881, it was an attempt to create a colony of artistic interiors. W.B. Yeats was among the first to live there.

Philadelphia: Centennial Exposition. The displays of both Oriental pottery and E. Chaplet’s ‘Limoges’ glazes influenced studio potters in America, especially Hugh C. Robertson and M. Louise McLaughlin. Christopher Dresser lectured in Philadelphia that year and his influence can clearly be seen in the change of style of Daniel Pabst’s work, which had been exhibited that year. Dresser was also commissioned to make a collection of Japanese artifacts, including glass, for Tiffany & Co. while he was in Japan in 1877.

M. Louise McLaughlin developed ‘Limoges’ underglaze painting.
New York Society of Decorative art founded 24th February.
Martin Bros. Move from Fulham to Southall.
Morris founded ‘Anti-Scrape’, the ‘Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings’

Herter Brothers of New York designed the interior of the Mark Hopkins House in San Francisco, to which the California School of Design moved in 1893.
Paris: L’Exposition Universelle.
London: International Exhibition at South Kensington.

C.H. Brannam Ltd. Established in Barnstable, Devon by Charles Brannam for the production of art pottery, known as ‘Barum Ware’, which was featured in later Liberty & Co. catalogues.
Louis C. Tiffany & co., Associated Artists, founded in New York with the co-operation of Candace Wheeler and the Society of Decorative Art.
Women’s Pottery Club founded in Cincinnati to provide useful and artistic means of gaining an income for women.
London: International Exhibition at South Kensington.

Rookwood pottery founded in Cincinnati.

Fourth American edition of Eastlake’s ‘Hints on Household Taste’ published. It was first serialised in ‘Queen’, 1865-6 and proved incredibly successful in America, giving rise to the ‘Eastlake Style’.
Aller Vale Pottery re-organised for the production of art pottery after a fire which had destroyed the old factory which had specialized in architectural wares. Later stocked by Liberty & Co.

Partnership of Henry Tooth and William Ault established the Bretby Art Pottery.
Messrs Wilcox of Leeds began the manufacture of Burmantofts Faience which continued until 1904.
Oscar Wilde, undertook a wildly successful eighteen months lecture tour of America, preaching the Aesthetic ideal of art and decoration.
Century Guild founded by A.H. Mackmurdo, Selwyn Image and Herbert P. Horne.
The architect H.H. Richardson traveled to Europe and visited Morris at Merton Abbey and here he met Burne-Jones and showed ‘unbounded enthusiasm’ for De Morgan’s work.

L.C. Tiffany & Co., Associated Artists, decorated the White House.

Mackmurdo’s book on ‘Wren’s City Churches’ published with the famous title page, now seen as a seminal influence on Art Nouveau.
The Ladies Home Journal founded in America: it was later to contain articles on Art and Crafts design.
Boston, U.S.A., The American Exhibition of the Products, Arts and Manufactures of Foreign Nations.

First appearance of ‘The Hobby Horse’, a quarterly magazine of the Century Guild. Printed on hand made paper with the advice and assistance of Emery Walker it is a precursor of Morris’ experiments with fine printing at the Kelmscott Press.
Art Workers Guild formed by the pupils and assistants of Richard Norman Shaw joining together with the ‘Fifteen’, a group launched some four years earlier on the initiative of Lewis F. Day.
Keswick School of Industrial Arts founded as an evening institute by Canon and Mrs. Rawnsley.

Home Arts and Industries Association established by Mrs. Jebb with the enthusiastic support of A.H. Mackmurdo.
The annual exhibitions held at the Royal Albert Hall show work of all the local classes and guilds.

Liverpool Exhibition. Mackmurdo’s stand provided yet more easily assimilated inspiration for the Art Nouveau artists of the ‘fin de siecle’. The elongated roof supports ending in wide flat ornamental finials are the prototypes of many later architectural decorative features.

C.R. Ashbee went to live at Toynbee Hall, the pioneer University Settlement in the East End of London. He lectured at places such as Deptford or Beckton, ‘of Gas Works fame’ to recruit men for Toynbee Hall. There he started a Ruskin reading class which he expended into a class of drawing and decoration. He supervised the decoration of the Toynbee Hall dining room by members of his own class, and it was from these pupils that the nucleus of his Guild of Handicraft was drawn.

Guild of Handicraft founded with three members and a working capital of fifty pounds. Despite Morris’ doubts – he met Ashbee’s plans ‘with a great deal of cold water’ – the Guild was remarkable successful for many years, only running into financial difficulty in 1907.
Arts and Crafts Society founded by splinter group from the Art Workers’ Guild. The founder members included Walter Crane, Heywood Sumner, W.A.S. Benson, William De Morgan, Lewis F. Day and W.R. Lethaby. It was another of their number, T. Cobden Sanderson that coined the felicitous phrase ‘Arts and Crafts’ to replace the clumsy title originally used of ‘The Combined Arts Society’. The first exhibition was held at the New Gallery in October.
National Association for the Advancement of Art in Relation to Industry formed. At both the first Congress in Liverpool, and at Edinburgh the following year, Morris and Crane spoke on socialist issues and were said to have ‘spoiled the Congress’.
Glasgow International Exhibition.

Paris: Exposition Universelle Internationale.
An exhibition of American work was held at Johnstone, Norman & Co. Galleries in New Bond Street; it included decorative designs by John La Farge and Rookwood Faience.

Establishment of the Kelmscott Press, the venture that was to dominate Morris’ last years.
Birmingham Guild of Handicraft founded with Montague Fordham as first director.
Vittoria Street School for jewelers and silversmiths opened in Birmingham.
Kenton & Co., the furniture firm, founded by Ernest Gimson, Sidney Barnsley, Alfred Powell, Mervyn Macartney, W.R Lethaby and Reginald Blomfield.
Charles Rohlfs opened his furniture workshop in Buffalo.
Walter Crane visited America.
The work of C.F.A. Voysey first began appearing in American journals.

Kenton & Co. exhibition at Barnard’s Inn, the premises of the Art Workers Guild. In spite of the success of the exhibition the Company failed in 1892.
Arts and Crafts exhibition held in Brussels, inspired the foundation of ‘ L’Association Pour L’Art’.
Chelsea Pottery opened in Chelsea, Mass, by Hugh C. Robertson.
George and Albert Stickley established Stickley Bros. Co. in Grand Rapids.
Voysey’s work exhibited at the Boston Architectural Club.

Walter Crane lectured at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Elbert Hubbard, the founder of the Roycrofters, visited Morris at Hammersmith and saw the Kelmscott Press which was to inspire his own experiments in fine printing.

Chicago: World’s Columbian Exposition; World’s Fair. Included exhibits by Tiffany & Co. and demonstrated the great advance in American artistic culture since 1876.
The first number of ‘The Studio’ was published in April, including an interview with C.F.A. Voysey, articles on Morris’ decoration at Stanmore Hall, the work by students at Birmingham Town Hall, and work by Walter Crane, A.H. Mackmurdo and Frank Brangwyn. It was this propagandist magazine which disseminated the activities and ideals of the Arts and Crafts movement.
Frank Lloyd Wright set up his own architectural practice in Chicago.
Voysey’s work first appeared in the ‘International Studio’ and was also exhibited at the Chicago World’s Fair.

Della Robbia pottery established by Harold Rathbone in Birkenhead.
Grueby Faience Co. started in Boston.

First Arts & Crafts society founded in San Francisco; it was called the Guild of Arts & Crafts of San Francisco or the San Francisco Guild of Arts & Crafts.

First mission style furniture was made in San Francisco; the first item was a chair for the Swedenborgian Church in San Francisco, followed by a rocker and probably other furniture made by Forbes Co.

Samuel Bing published his ‘La Culture Artistique en Amerique’, the result of his observations made during a trip to the United States in 1893 to visit the Chicago World’s Fair. At the end of the same year he altered his shop which had previously concentrated on the sale of objects imported from the Far East, into a showcase for modern designers and craftsmen; now known as the ‘Galeries de l’Art Nouveau’
Birmingham Guild of Handicraft became a limited company with the Right Hon. William Kenrick M.P. as director.
Newcomb College Pottery established in New Orleans for women students.
Chalk and Chisel Club organised in Minneapolis, which later became the Minneapolis Arts and Crafts Society in 1899.
Venice: Esposizione Internationale d’Arte (1st Biennale)
Liege: L’Oeuvres Artistiques exhibition.

Death of William Morris in October.
Foundation of the Central School of Arts and Crafts with W.R. Lethaby and George Frampton as joint principals, in November.
C.R. Mackintosh won the competition o provide the design for the new Glasgow School of Art.
‘The Song of Songs’ completed at Roycroft by Elbert Hubbard.
C.R. Ashbee visited New York and Philadelphia.
Dedham Pottery opened in Dedham, Massachusetts with Hugh C. Robertson as director after the failure of the Chelsea Pottery.
First issue of ‘House Beautiful’ published in Chicago.

Pilkington’s, the glass manufacturers, established their pottery, manufacturing tiles and other wares designed by Walter Crane, Lewis F. Day and C.F.A. Voysey.
First major Arts and Crafts exhibition held at Copley Hall, Boston in April. On June 28th the Boston Arts and Crafts Society was founded.
Chicago Arts and Crafts Society founded on 22nd October.
C.R. Mackintosh first undertakes he designing, decoration and furnishing of a number of tea-rooms in Glasgow for the Misses Cranston. The tea-room movement had begun in the 1870s to combat day time drunkenness by providing billiard rooms, smoking rooms etc. Mackintosh collaborated on the Buchanan Street and Argyll Street rooms with George Walton but had complete control over the Ingram Street (1901) and Willow (1903-4) tea-rooms. The work was not completed until 1916.
Brussels: International Exhibition.
The first article on F.L. Wright appeared in ‘House Beautiful’. A second followed in 1899.

The artists colony at Darmstadt set up by the Grand Duke of Hesse. Furniture designs commissioned from M.H. Baillie Scott and C.R. Ashbee and made by the Guild of Handicraft.
The Ruskin Pottery established by w. Howson Taylor, son of the remarkable headmaster of the Birmingham School of Art, E.R. Taylor, who provided some of the decorative designs for the pottery. W.H. Taylor was throughout his career preoccupied with the use of experimental glazes and the interest of Ruskin pottery lies solely in the use of glaze effects.
Omar Ramsden and Alwyn Carr set up in partnership in London establishing a recognizable style of elaborated ‘Arts and Crafts’ inspiration. Much of the work was carried out by assistants.
Gustav Stickley Co. founded in Syracuse, New York in May. That year he also visited Europe, meeting Voysey, Ashbee, Samuel Bing and others.
William H. Grueby introduced matt glazes at his pottery, influencing many of the American studio potters.
Vienna: 1st Secession Exhibition. Walter Crane exhibited.

Liberty’s ‘Cymric’ silver range established. Many arts and crafts artists employed as designers, among them Arthur Gaskin, Bernard Cuzner and Reginald (Rex) Silver, but the most prolific and consistently used was the Manxman, Archibald Knox.

Adelaide Alsop Robinea, an associate of the University City Pottery, Missouri, began publication of ‘Keramic Studio’ in Syracuse, to provide good designs for other potters.
Industrial Art League founded in Chicago; disbanded in 1904.
Vienna: 3rd Secession exhibition. Walter Crane exhibited.
Venice: Eposizione Internationale d’Arte (3rd Biennale, twenty Glasgow School exhibits).

Paris: L’Exposition Universelle. This exhibition provided an unrivalled showcase for the work of Art Nouveau designers. The work of the obscure Bromsgrove Guild, founded in the early 1890’s by Walter Gilbert, cousin of the sculptor Alfred Gilbert, was by some organizational oversight, practically the only English craftwork to be seen.
In the same year both John Ruskin and Oscar Wilde died, one mad, the other disgraced.
L. and J.G. Stickley from their own company in Lafeyetteville, New York.
Guild of arts and Crafts of New York organised.
C.R. Ashbee on a lecture tour of America; he met Frank Lloyd Wright at Hull House,
Paris: Centennial exhibition.
Vienna: 8th Secession exhibition. It included rooms by the Glasgow School and Ashbee’s Guild of Handicraft.

Ernest Gimson established his furniture workshops temporarily in Cirencester, where he was joined by Peter Waals, an experienced Dutch cabinetmaker.
Artificers’ Guild founded by Nelson Dawson.
Buffalo: Pan-American exhibition.
Artus Van Briggle started his own pottery studio in Colorado Springs.
Rose Valley Association incorporated at Moylan, Pennsylvania by W.L. Price and M. Hawley McLanahan based on the ideals of Morris’ ‘News from Nowhere’ which had been published in England in ‘The Commonweal’, 1890.
‘The Craftsman’, first published by Gustav Stickley at Syracuse in October. It contained designs for furniture and decorative schemes and was widely read in America.
Furniture shop started by Roycrofters in East Aurora.
Glasgow: International Exhibition.
Venice: Esposizione Internationale d’Arte.

‘Handicraft’, first published in Boston.
Handicraft Guild established in Minneapolis.
Society of Arts and Crafts founded in Grand Rapids.
Gimson’s permanent workshop opened at Daneway House, Sapperton, which formed a focal point for the activities of the Cotswold School. The same year the Guild of Handicraft moved to Chipping Campden in the same neighbourhood as Sapperton.
J. Paul Cooper appointed head of the metalwork department at the Birmingham School of Art.
Van de Velde opened a craft school in Weimar, the first of the activities leading eventually to the Bauhaus.
Tobey Furniture Co. of Chicago held an exhibition of Morris fabrics, reviewed in ‘House Beautiful’ by an Englishman, Joseph Twyman. Marshall Field & Co. of Chicago also stocked Morris & Co. goods.
Vienna: 15th Secession exhibition. It included Jewellery by Ashbee and Edgar Simpson.
Turin: Esposizione Internationale delle Industrie e del Lavoro.

William Morris Society founded in Chicago, 7th May, by Joseph Twyman.
Rose Valley Association began publication of ‘The Artsman’.
Henry Wilson published ‘Silverwork and Jewellery’.
Artificers; Guild acquired by Montague Fordham, one time director of the Birmingham Guild of Handicraft, and re-established in his gallery in Maddox Street in London.
Vienna: 17th Secession exhibition. It included Jewellery and silver by Ashbee.

Alexander Fisher set up a school of enamelling in his Kensington Studio.
St. Louis: Louisiana Purchase International Exposition, The Art Palace.
Voysey was commissioned to design a courtyard in Massachusetts.

Tiffany pottery first sold to the public.
Buffalo: Pan-American Exposition.
Liege: Exposition Universelle et Internationale.
Ernest Batchelder visited England and went to Chipping Campden where he noted a ‘spirit of discontent’ among Guild members. He wrote an article on his visit,
6th Biennale in Venice, the English section designed by Frank Brangwyn.

C.L. Eastlake died.
Californian earthquake and fire.
The furniture Shop and Philopolis Press founded in San Francisco by A.F. and L.K. Mathews. The publication of the press, including Philopolis, were dedicated to the rebuilding of San Francisco.
Della Robbia pottery closes.
Vienna: 24th secession exhibition. It included silver and Jewellery by Ashbee.

Founding of the Deutsche Werkbund by Hermann Muthesius who had been sent in 1896 by the Prussian Board of Trade to England to make a study of English architecture and decoration.
National League of Handicraft Studies organised in Boston in February.
Last issue of ‘The Artsman’.
Greene and Greene begin work on the Blacker House in Pasadena.

Ashbee visited America to lecture. After his visit he contributed articles to ‘House Beautiful’.
Dick Van Erp opens the Copper shop in Oakland.
Saragossa. L’Exposicio Hispanico-Francesca.

Guild of Handicraft disbanded.
‘Modern English Silverwork’ and essay by C.R. Ashbee, printed at his Essex House Press.
Only issue of ‘Arroyo Craftsman’ published in Los Angeles in October.
Rose valley Community bankrupt.
Frank Lloyd Wright undertook his first West Coast commission.
Ashbee visited California and met the Greenes , comparing their adaption of Japanese architectural details favourably with the work of Frank Lloyd Wright.

Fulper Pottery Co., New Jersey began production of art pottery.
Frank Lloyd Wright’s ‘Augefuehrte Bauten und Entwuerfe’ published in Berlin with a foreword by Ashbee. That year he stayed with Ashbee in Chipping Campden.
Stickley was forced to admit in ‘The Craftsman’ that not only had he never built the Craftsman Houses, which he had designed and published, but that he knew that their cost would be much higher than his estimates. ‘The Craftsman’s’ circulation began to drop from what had been its peak.
Brussels: Exposition Universelle et Internationale.

Turin: International exhibition. University City pottery won the Grand Prize of Europe for Mrs. Robineau’s ‘scarab’ vase.
In August 1911 and November 1912 articles on and by Voysey appeared in ‘The Craftsman’.

Archibald Knox visited Philadelphia and New York.
‘Imprint’ Founded by Gerald Meynell, with Edward Johnston, Ernest Jackson and J.H. Mason as editors. W.R. Lethaby contributed to it. This magazine only survived for a year, but demonstrated Britain’s lead in printing and typography, following on form the Kelmscott Press.

Omega Workshops opened in Fitzroy Square by Roger Fry with work by Duncan Grant, Vanessa bell, Wyndham Lewis, Frederick Etchells and Cuthbert Hamilton. They specialized in interior decoration with murals, painted furniture, pottery and rugs. The venture, influenced by Poiret’s Paris workshops survived until 1919.
Ghent: Exposition Universelle et Internationale.

Deutsche Werkbund exhibition in Cologne.
Paris: Exposition de l’Art Decoratif de la Grand-Bretagne et d’Irlande. Held at the Louvre, and organised by the Board of Trade, the exhibition featured work of all the leading arts and crafts artists.


Gustav Stickley enterprises declared bankrupt.
Alice and Elbert Hubbard perish on the Lusitania, 7th May.
Founding of the Design and Industries Association. Many of the leading Arts and Crafts figures were instrumental in its formation, including Harry Peach of the Dryad Workshops, Harold Stabler, Selwyn Image, W.A.S. Benson, W.R. Lethaby and Ambrose Heal.
San Francisco: Panama-Pacific International Exposition.
San Diego: Panama-Californian Exposition.

Last issue of ‘Philopolis’, September.
Last issue of ‘The Craftsman’, December.

The Bauhaus founded in April in Weimar by Walter Gropius, who had studied architecture under Peter Behrens.

From; Arts and Crafts by Anscombe and Gere


Strudwick worked as a studio assistant to both Spencer Stanhope and Burne-Jones and his style reflects the influence of both. His subjects are usually poetic and allegorical. He was an admirer of Italian Renaissance painting and his pictures reflect this. One of the first writers on Strudwick s work was the young Bernard Shaw who wrote an article on him in 1891 praising his transcendent expressiveness.


Rossetti was a poet and painter, born in London 1828, the son of an Italian political refugee and the brother of Cristina Rossetti. In 1848 he formed the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood together with Holman Hunt and Millais, however, their association was short since Rossetti s romantic imagination set him apart from the more literal endeavours of the others. His subjects were mostly drawn from Dante and from a mediaeval dream world which was also reflected in his poems. Died 1882.


Born in Paris in 1853. Mengin was a pupil of Cabanel and was a sculptor as well as a painter. Exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon from 1876-1927. Sappho was a much-admired Greek lyric poetess, who taught the arts on the Greek island of Lesbos. This dramatically sensual portrait shows Sappho with her lyre on the Leucadian rock, moments before she jumps to her death, according to legend. Died 1933.


Alma-Tadema was born in Holland in 1836 and after studying art in Antwerp, worked for Professor Louis de Taye, a famous archaeologist, later studying Roman and Pompeiian ruins. Thus his re-creation of antiquity was based on profound knowledge. Finding a ready market amongst the English for his classical scenes, he settled in London in 1870 and became one of the most successful Royal Academicians. He was especially noted for his ability to reproduce the effect of sunlight on marble and the sparkle on water. He died in 1912.


Born in Rome, Italy in 1849, Waterhouse s early work was influenced by Alma-Tadema, and he later became an associate of the Pre-Raphaelites, although his work differed widely from that of the original Brotherhood in its lack of moral seriousness. In particular he devoted his time to classical subjects and the femmes fatales of literature. His paintings were mainly of women: men were usually depicted as victims, as in Hylas and the Nymphs . The Lady of Shalott was one of his first successes, capturing a romantic, dreamy mood in a highly naturalistic setting. The Danaides , in Greek Mythology, were commanded to murder their husbands on their wedding night. All but one obeyed and they were punished by having to draw water from a well and pour it into a vessel from which it continually escaped. Penelope and her Suitors , commissioned by the Aberdeen Art Gallery, was an expensive and controversial purchase. This great Victorian romantic painter, a quiet and modest man, successfully pulled together the opposing late Victorian Subjects of the Pre-Raphaelites and Classicism. He died in London 1917.


Born in Southampton, England 1829. With Hunt and Rossetti, Millais founded the Ore-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He had amazing technical virtuosity but he was not attached to intellectual dogma like Hunt and gradually drifted away from his early ideals. He started to create works for the popular market and by1875 was earning around £30,000 p.a. from his work. In Ophelia there is an intricate detail in every weed and flower and it is said that the model lay in the bath for hours on end with only candles to warm the water, and she later died of pneumonia. Millais became a baronet in 1885 and on the death of Lord Leighton became president of the Royal Academy in 1896, only to die a few months later in London, 1896.


Born in County Clare, Ireland, in 1816, Burton was the son of an amateur artist. He studied in Dublin and exhibited his first watercolour at the RHA in 1832. As a student he mixed with the leading intellectuals of the time, and developed an interest in the Irish landscape and the customs and dress of its people. In 1851 he left Ireland for Germany and spent the next seven years there employed by Maximillian II of Bavaria. During this time he became inspired by the work of the Old Masters. He then settled in London where he was appointed Director of the National Gallery, a post which he held for twenty years. In 1864 he painted his masterpiece The Meeting on the Turret Stairs an illustration of an episode from a Danish Ballad. On his death in 1900 he was taken back to Dublin to be buried.


Webb met William Morris in G.E. Street’s office in Oxford. His subsequent architectural practice as well as his design career were bound up in the fortunes of the Morris firm. Commissions for both were interdependent, Webb specifying the Morris firm as decorators and Morris recommending Webb as architect. Webb was responsible for the decorative scheme in an early Morris commission, the ‘Green Dining Room’ at the South Kensington Museum (still intact and recently restored by the Victoria and Albert Museum) and drew almost all the birds and animal’s in Morris’ fabric, tapestry and wallpaper designs. He was commissioned by Morris to design table glass by Powell’s and furniture for the Red House in 1859. Webb provided furniture designs for Major Gillum in 1860 and for the Morris firm in 1861 until the responsibility was taken over by his assistant George Jack in the 1880s. Metalwork for gates and fireplaces was executed by Longden, whose London premises were next to Morris & Co.’s showrooms. He used he distinguished carver James Forsyth, who had also worked for R. Norman Shaw, his successor in Street’s office, and W.E. Nesfield among others. Webb retired in 1900, unable to come to terms with what he foresaw as the future of architecture. Shaw described him as ‘A very able man indeed, but with a strong liking for the ugly’.